Thermodynamics represents the main research subject of the group. In particular, the focus is on themes related to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, entropy production and heat transfer inside energy and refrigeration systems.


Currently, there are many thesis subjects available: 

  • Modeling of evaporator and condenser with pressure losses
  • Microchannel heat exchangers
  • Thermodynamic optimization of heat exchangers
  • District heating and cooling
  • Constructal Theory applications
  • Artificial Muscles 



Educational work


Video lecture by Prof. Grazzini  on complexity and life (in italian):



Selected Publications:


International journals:

  1. U. Lucia, G. Grazzini The Second Law Today: Using Maximum-Minimum Entropy Generation, Entropy 2015, 17, 7786-7797; doi:10.3390/e17117786

  2. U. Lucia, G. Grazzini, B. Montrucchio,G. GrisoliaR. BorchielliniG. GervinoC. CastagnoliA. PonzettoF. Constructal thermodynamics combined with infrared experiments to evaluate temperature differences in cells Scientific Reports 01/2015; 5:11587. DOI:10.1038/srep11587

  3. Miroslav Grmela, Giuseppe Grazzini, Umberto Lucia, L’Hocine Yahia, Multiscale Mesoscopic Entropy of Driven Macroscopic Systems, Entropy, 2013, 15, pp.5053-5064

  4. G. Grazzini, R. Borchiellini, U. Lucia, Entropy versus entransy, Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Vol. 38, n. 3, 2013, pp. 259–271.

  5. G.Grazzini, A.Milazzo, Energy Fluxes and their Relations within Energy Plants, Energy Conv. and Management, 48,.2007,pp.1720-1725 IF 1.325

  6. U. Lucia, G.Grazzini Global analysis of the local dissipation potential. Rev. Gen. Therm., Vol. 36, n.8, pp.605-609, 1997.

  7. G.Grazzini Work from Irreversible Heat Engines. Energy, Vol.16, n.4, 1991, pp.747-755.

  8. G.Grazzini, F.Gori Entropy Parameters for Heat Exchangers Design. Int. Jour. of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.31, No. 12, 1988 pp.2547-2554.

  9. G.Grazzini, F.Gori Influence of Thermal Irreversibilities on Work Producing Systems. Revue General de Thermique, n.312, dicembre 1987, pp.637-639.


International conferences

  1. U. Lucia, P. Buzzi, G. Grazzini Irreversibility in river flow Constructal Law & Second Law Conference Parma 18th - 19th May 2015, pp.83-93

  2. G.Grazzini, U.Lucia Evolution rate of thermodynamic systems In Shape and Thermodynamics, Int. Workshop, Florence (Italy) 25-26/09/2008, Editors A. Bejan, G. Grazzini (

  3. G.Grazzini, A.Milazzo Exergy analysis of a CAES with thermal energy storage, 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference, 18-22 Maggio 2008, Eindhoven (NL)

  4. G.Grazzini, R.Rinaldi, M.Tucci Work and efficiency maxima for irreversible heat powerplants. Energy for the 21st Century, Proceedings of Florence World Energy Research Symposium, 6-8 giugno 1994, SGE, Padova, pp.417-428.

  5. A.Bosio, G.Grazzini, S.Ponticelli Experimental Results of the Optimization of a Solar Thermal Plant in Terms of Available Energy and Flowrate Control. World Renewable Energy Congress, Reading,U.K., 23-28 Sept. 1990.

  6. G.Grazzini Maximum Work with Isothermal Exchange Irreversible Heat Engines. A Future for Energy, Proceedings of Florence World Energy Research Symposium, pp.473-484, 28 maggio, 1 giugno 1990, Pergamon Press.



  1. G. Grazzini, C. Balocco, G. B. Andreani Rational use and Energy Planning: A Thermo-dynamic and geographical Approach, In Energy Efficiency Research Advances, David M. Bergmann Editor, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, USA, 2008, pp. 11-62.


National journal and conferences

  1. C.Balocco, G.Grazzini, Termodinamica e Informazione per l'uso razionale delle risorse energeticheAtti del Convegno Nazionale sulla Politica Energetica in Italia, Bologna 18-19 Aprile 2005.

  2. G.Grazzini Cicli inversi irreversibili con scambi isotermi  XLVI Congresso Nazionale ATI, Gaeta 25-27 settembre 1991, Vol.1, pp.IA-3-10.

  3. G.Grazzini Lavoro massimo ottenibile dal sole.  Energie Alternative HTE, n.67, settembre-ottobre 1990, pp.325-330.

  4. G.Grazzini, A.Milazzo Dimensionamento a minima produzione di entropia del recuperatore e dello scambiatore di un motore Stirling.  XLIV Congresso Naz. A.T.I., IIB-31, Vol.I, Cosenza 12-15 settembre 1989.

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